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Unix commands

This quick guide lists commands, including a syntax and brief description. For more detail, use:

Access Control

exit - terminate a shell (see "man sh" or "man csh")
logout - sign off; end session (C shell and bash shell only;)
passwd - change login password
rlogin - log in remotely to another UNIX system
ssh - secure shell
slogin - secure version of rlogin
yppasswd - change login password in yellow pages
Communications

mail - send and receive mail
mesg - permit or deny terminal messages and talk requests
pine - send and receive mail 
talk - talk to another logged-in user
write - write to another logged-in user
Programming Tools

as - assembler, specific to each machine architecture
awk - pattern scanning and processing language
bc - online calculator
cc - C compiler 
csh - C shell command interpreter
dbx - source-level debugging program
f77 - Fortran compiler 
gdb - GNU Project debugger
gprof - display profile of called routines
kill - kill a process
ld - the UNIX loader
lex - generate lexical analysis programs
lint - check C source code
make - maintain large programs
maple - symbolic mathematics program
math - symbolic mathematics program
nice - run a command at low priority (see "man nice" or "man csh")
nohup - run a command immune to hangups
pc - Pascal compiler (xlp on ADS)
perl - Popular script interpreter
prof - display profile data
python - Python programming language
sh - Bourne shell command interpreter
yacc - generate input parsing programs
xcalc - graphical calulator under x
Misc Commands:

These commands list or alter information about the system:

CommandDescription
chfnChange your finger information
chgrpChange the group ownership of a file
chownChange owner
datePrint the date
determinAutomatically find terminal type
duPrint amount of disk usage
echoEcho arguments to the standard options
exitQuit the system
fingerPrint information about logged-in users
groupaddCreate a user group
groupsShow group memberships
homequotaShow quota and file usage
iostatReport I/O statistics
killSend a signal to a process
lastShow last logins of users
logoutlog off UNIX
lunList user names or login ID
netstatShow network status
passwdChange user password
passwdChange your login password
printenvDisplay value of a shell variable
psDisplay the status of current processes
psPrint process status statistics
quota -vDisplay disk usage and limits
resetReset terminal mode
scriptKeep script of terminal session
scriptSave the output of a command or process
setenvSet environment variables
sttySet terminal options
timeTime a command
topDisplay all system processes
tsetSet terminal mode
ttyPrint current terminal name
umaskShow the permissions that are given to view files by default
unameDisplay name of the current system
uptimeGet the system up time
useraddCreate a user account
usersPrint names of logged in users
vmstatReport virtual memory statistics
wShow what logged in users are doing
whoList logged in users
Documentation

apropos - locate commands by keyword lookup
find - locate file (i.e. find . -name *.tex -print)
info - start the info explorer program 
man - find manual information about commands
whatis - describe what a command is
whereis - locate source, binary, or man page for a program
Editors

emacs - screen-oriented text editor
pico - screen-oriented text editor (renamed called nano)
sed - stream-oriented text editor
vi - full-screen text editor
vim - full-screen text editor ("vi-improved")
File and Directory Management

cd - change working directory
chmod - change the protection of a file or directory
chown - change owner (or group) of a file or directory
chgrp - change group of a file or directory
cmp - compare two files
comm - select/reject lines common to two sorted files
cp - copy files
crypt - encrypt/decrypt files (CCWF only)
diff - compare the contents of two ASCII files
file - determine file type
grep - search a file for a pattern
gzip - compress or expand files
ln - make a link to a file
ls - list the contents of a directory
lsof - list of open files    
mkdir - create a directory
mv - move or rename files and directories
pwd - show the full pathname of your working directory
quota - display disk usage and limits
rm - delete (remove) files
rmdir - delete (remove) directories
stat - status of file (i.e. last access)
sync - flush filesystem buffers   
sort - sort or merge files
tar - create or extract archives
tee - copy input to standard output and other files
tr - translate characters
umask - change default file protections
uncompress - restore compressed file
uniq - report (or delete) repeated lines in a file
wc - count lines, words, and characters in a file
File Display and Printing

cat - show the contents of a file; catenate files
fold - fold long lines to fit output device
head - show first few lines of a file
lpq - examine the printer spooling queue
lpr - print a file
lprm - remove jobs from the printer spooling queue
more - display a file, one screen at a time
less - like more with more features 
page - like "more", but prints screens top to bottom
pr - paginate a file for printing
tail - show the last part of a file
zcat - display a compressed file
xv - show print, manipulate images
gv - show ps and pdf files
xpdf = shopw pdf files (use gv) 
File Transfer

ftp - transfer files between network hosts
rsync -  fast and flexible sync between computers
scp - secure version of rcp
Miscellaneous

alias - define synonym commands
chquota - change disk quota on ACITS UNIX systems
chsh - change default login shell
clear - clear terminal screen
echo - echo arguments
pbm - portable bitmap manipulation programs
popd - pop the directory stack (C shell only)
pushd - push directory on stack (C shell only)
script - make typescript of terminal session
setenv - set an environment variable (C shell only)
stty - set terminal options
News/Networks

netstat - show network status
rsh - run shell or command on another UNIX system
ssh - secure-shell version of rsh
Process Control

bg - put suspended process into background
fg - bring process into foreground
jobs - list processes
^y - suspend process at next input request
^z - suspend current process 
Status Information

clock - determine processor time
date - show date and time
df - summarize free disk space
du - summarize disk space used
env - display environment
finger - look up user information
history - list previously issued commands 
last - indicate last login of users
lpq - examine spool queue
manpath - show search path for man pages
printenv - print out environment
ps - show process status
pwd - print full pathname of working directory
set - set shell variables (C shell, bash, or ksh)
spend - lists year-to-date ACITS UNIX charges
stty - set terminal options
time - timing programs
top - list  top  cpu processes
uptime - show system load, how long system has been up
w - show who is on system, what command each job is executing
who - show who is logged onto the system
whois - Internet user name directory service
whoami - who owns the shell
Image Processing

gimp - photoshop type image processing program
xfig - drawing program
xv - image viewer
xvscan - scan picture 
xpaint - paint program
kpaint - kde paint program 
Sound

mplayer - mpg player 
realplay - realaudio player
timidity - midi to wav converter and player
xmms - mp3 player 
X windows
            
grabmode - info on screen: i.e. "1152x864"  51.213kHz/56.59Hz
import - grab window (i.e. import ppm:- >out.ppm)
xdpyinfo -  number of colors 
xkill - kill xwindow
xlock - lock screen
xterm - xterminal
xwininfo - information on open window
Web

html2ps - html to ps
latex2html - latex to html translator
lynx - text based webbrowser
netscape - webbrowser
sitecopy - sitecopy is for easily maintaining remote web sites.
weblint - html sytax and style checker
$man command
Files and Directories:

These commands allow you to create directories and handle files.

CommandDescription
catDisplay File Contents
cdChanges Directory to dirname
chgrpchange file group
chmodChanging Permissions
cpCopy source file into destination
fileDetermine file type
findFind files
grepSearch files for regular expressions.
headDisplay first few lines of a file
lnCreate softlink on oldname
lsDisplay information about file type.
mkdirCreate a new directory dirname
moreDisplay data in paginated form.
mvMove (Rename) a oldname to newname.
pwdPrint current working directory.
rmRemove (Delete) filename
rmdirDelete an existing directory provided it is empty.
tailPrints last few lines in a file.
touchUpdate access and modification time of a file.
Text Processing

abiword - open source word processor
addbib - create or extend bibliographic database
col - filter reverse line feeds
diction - identify wordy sentences 
diffmk - mark differences between files
dvips - convert TeX DVI files into PostScript
explain - explain phrases found by diction program
grap - pic preprocessor for drawing graphs 
hyphen - find hyphenated words 
ispell - check spelling interactively
latex - format text in LaTeX (based on TeX)
pdfelatex - latex with pdf output 
latex2html - Latex to html
lookbib - find bibliography references
macref - make cross-reference listing of nroff/troff macro files
ndx - create a subject-page index for a document
neqn - format mathematics with nroff
nroff - format text for simple display
pic - make simple pictures for troff input
psdit - filter troff output for Apple LaserWriter
ptx - make permuted index (not on CCWF)
refer - insert references from bibliographic databases 
roffbib - run off bibliographic database 
sortbib - sort bibliographic database 
spell - find spelling errors
ispell - interactive spell checker
style - analyze surface characteristics of a document 
tbl - format tables for nroff/troff
tex - format text
tpic - convert pic source files into TeX commands 
wget -  grab webpage
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