History of Java
Java Programming Language was conceived by the effort of 5 great people, James Gosling, Patrick Naughton, Chris Warth, Mike Sheridan and Ed Frank. They all worked for Sun Microsystems, Inc and came up with Java in 1991. The language took 18 months to develop and had a initial name as "Oak" which was renamed to Java in 1995, due to copyright issues.
The idea was to develop a language which was platform-independent and which could create embedded softwares for consumer electronic devices. C and C++ were quite inefficient for the purpose because they were not platform-independent as there programs have to be compiled for particular hardware before execution. Also, the compiled code was inefficient for other processors and it had to be recompiled. So the team of 5 also called as Green Team began to work in developing a easier and cost-efficient solution. They worked for 18 months in developing a portable, platform-independent language that could create a code which can run on variety of processors under differing environments.
The above necessity led to creation of Java. At the same time, Internet and WWW were becoming popular day-by-day. The web programs lacked the features of platform-independence. It required programs that could run on any operating system irrespective of hardware and software configuration. It required small and portable programs that could be securely transported over the network. The programming language available to suit such requirements was Java. Many developers soon realized that architectural neutral language like Java would be best for writing programs for internet. Thus forcus of Java was shifted from consumer electronics to World Wide Web.
Today, Java is not an ordinary programming language. It is a technology which is simple, Object Oriented, Distributed, Robust, Secure, Architecture neutral, Portable, Interpreated, Multithreaded, High Performance and Dynamic.
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Java version releases
Version Year of release Description
JDK1.0 23-Jan-1996 The codename is Oak. Initial release of Jdk1.0
JDK1.1 19-Feb-1997 The addition of AWT, JDBC, RMI, Javabeans etc
J2SE 1.2 8-Dec-1998 J2SE(Java2 Standard Edition), Codename Playground, Major additions are- Swing graphical API was integrated, strictfp Keyword, reflection, Java IDL, collection and JIT Compiler in Sun's JVM for Java plug-in was equipped.
J2SE 1.3 8-May-2000 Codename Kestrel. The major changes are- Hotspot JVM included, RMI modified to support compatibility with CORBA, Java Naming and Directory Interface(JNDI) included and Java Platform Debugger Architecture(JPDA),Java Sound etc.
J2SE 1.4 6-Feb-2002 Codename merlin. This was the first release of the java platform developed under java community process as JSR 59. The Major Changes are- assert Keyword, Regular Expression, Exception chaining, Image I/O API for reading and writing images, Java Web start included.
J2SE 5.0 30-Sept-2004 codename Tiger , Originally Numbered 1.5, New language features added are- Generics, Metadata, Autoboxing, Enumeratations, Swing, Var args, collections static imports etc.
Java SE 6 11-Dec-2006 Codename Mustang. New changes are- Scripting Language support, Improved web service support trough JAX-WS , JDBC 4.0 support, support for pluggable annotations, JVM improvements including Synchronization and compiler performance optimizations, Garbaze collection algorithms.
Java SE 7.0 Till 2010 Codename Dolphin, currently in development stage, The features changes are- JVM support for dynamic language, New library for parallel computing on multi core, compressed 64 bit pointers, Automatic resource management.
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